Measuring and Changing Control: Women's Empowerment and Targeted Transfers (with I. Almås, O. Attanasio and P. Carneiro)
Economic Journal, Forthcoming.
WP: NBER Working Paper No. 21717 - CEPR DP No. 11465 - IZA DP No. 9779
Abstract This paper studies how targeting cash transfers to women affect their empowerment. We use a novel identification strategy to measure women’s willingness to pay to receive cash transfers instead of their partner receiving it. We apply this among women living in poor households in urban Macedonia. We match experimental data with a unique policy intervention (CCT) in Macedonia offering poor households cash transfers conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The program randomized whether the transfer was offered to household heads or mothers at municipality level, providing us with an exogenous source of variation (offered) in transfers. We show that women who were offered the transfer reveal a lower willingness to pay, and we show that this is in line with theoretical predictions.
The Effect of Gender-Targeted Cash Transfers on Household Expenditures: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment (with O. Attanasio, P. Carneiro and V. Lechene)
WP: IZA DP No. 10133
Abstract This paper studies the differential effect of targeting cash transfers to men or women on the structure of household expenditures on non-durables. We study a policy intervention in the Republic of Macedonia, offering cash transfers to poor households, conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The recipient of the transfer is randomized across municipalities to be either the household head or the mother. Using data collected to evaluate the conditional cash transfer program, we show that the gender of the recipient has an effect on the structure of expenditure shares. Targeting transfers to women increases the expenditure share on food by about 4 to 5 percent. To study the allocation of expenditures within the food basket, we estimate a demand system for food and we find that targeting payments to mothers induces, for different food categories, not only a significant intercept shift, but also a change in the slope of the Engel curve.
Intra-household resource control, subjective expectations and human capital investment
WP: NCID Working Paper 03/2015
Additional material: Online Appendix
Coverage: awarded EALE Young Labour Economist Prize
Abstract This paper studies how the interaction between intra-household allocation of resources and parental beliefs about the returns to education influences human capital investment among poor households. For this purpose, I study a conditional cash transfer program in the Republic of Macedonia, aiming at improving secondary school enrollment among children in poor households. For identification I exploit the random allocation of payments either to mothers or household heads, together with a unique information on parental subjective expectations of returns to schooling. I show that targeting mothers leads to an increase in secondary school enrollment only for children whose parental returns are sufficiently high at the beginning of the program. This effect is associated with an increase in individual expenditure shares on education for this group. I find no differential impact for other inputs, such as monitoring of school attendance and time use. Overall, I show that the effect of channeling resources to mothers is strictly related to heterogeneity in parental perceived returns to schooling.
RENT-SEEKINGThe Reach of Radio: defection messaging and armed group behavior (with P. Atwell and J. Gomes)
WP: HiCN WP 249
Abstract We study the role of FM radio messaging in discouraging violent conflict by armed groups. Focusing on the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), we collected unique information about defection messaging by radio stations in the four countries where the LRA has operated (DR Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan and Uganda). We exploit time and geographical variation, along with random topography-driven variation in radio coverage, to capture the causal effect of the intensity of messaging on violence, and on the LRA’s strategic behavior. Higher intensity of defection messages leads to a decrease in violence, measured in both number of events and fatalities. We show that this outcome is mainly explained by an increase in defections among LRA members. In areas with higher intensity of messaging, we observe a strategic shift as the LRA tries to compensate these membership losses by “recruiting” new members through increased abductions, and engaging in higher levels of looting to reward new and existing members.
On the mechanics of the political resource curse: information and local elite behaviour in Mozambique (with P. Vicente) - Work in Progress - Project summary
Productivity and rent-seeking in the lab (with D. Aycinena and A. Coutts) - Work in Progress
EDUCATION AND HEALTH
Public Health Interventions Crowd Out Private Health
Investments? Malaria Control Policies in Eritrea (with
P. Carneiro, A. Locatelli, S. Mihreteab and J. Keating)
Parental Perceived Returns to Schooling predicting
Future Schooling Decisions? Evidence from Macedonia
Community toilet use in slums: the role of informational and supply side constraints (with B. Augsburg) - Work in Progress - Project summary
The effect of non-cognitive skills training on violence among youth: Evidence from Honduras and El Salvador - Work in Progress